There were others working around the same time on similar ideas, or at least from a similar philosophy. Working to make computers, if not intuitive, at least comprehensible. I think this is a noble goal.
The computer is often thought of as a tool, but it is more like a tool shed, in which we store a collection of tools, a source of power, and a workspace.
That is to say, in the 60s and 70s, computers were weak and slow and computer users were also computer programmers. A small, tight knit circle of developers and computer scientists were responsible for the bulk of the progress made in that time, and the idea of designing tools for non-technical users was never considered.
Computers became more affordable, slowly. Affordable computers became more powerful, quickly. Within 10 years, non-technical users were interacting with computers on a daily basis. It was against the beginnings of this backdrop that the phrase I mentioned earlier was coined. "Human Literate Computers" or "Human Centered Computing."
Ease of Use was the holy grail for a lot of computer companies. A computer that was so easy to use that they could sell it to grandma. But, to me at least, Human Literate and Easy to Use are distinct ideas. Many modern applications are Easy to Use. Netflix is Easy to Use. Facebook is, for all it's faults, pretty easy to use. The iPhone, the iPad, and ChromeOS are super easy to use.
Well, they are easy to use as long as you use them in the prescribed way. As long as you let them tell you what you want to do, instead of the other way around.
That, IMO, is the distinction.
I think that many of the steps towards demystifying the computer of the 80s and 90s did good work, but ultimately, the computer industry left the whole idea behind, in favor of making some tasks Very Easy while making other tasks Practically Impossible, and turning everything into a surveillance device.
When I was a kid I was brought up with computers that showed you how they worked.
You booted in to a command prompt or a programming language, or you could get to one, if you wanted to.
I got to play with GW Basic and qBasic and, a little, with hypercard.
I got to take apart software and put it back together and make things that made people happy.
I often wonder why Hypercard had to die.
It was because Jobs wanted the Computer to be an Appliance. A thing only used in prescribed ways.
Letting people build their own tools means letting people control their own destiny.
If I can make what I want, or if someone else can make what they want, and then I can take it apart and improve it, why would I pay for an upgrade? Why would I pay you to build something that doesn't meet my needs?
Hypercard, if your unfamiliar, is powerpoint + instructions.
Here's a great introduction/example: http://www.loper-os.org/?p=568
The author walks you through building a calculator app in about 5 minutes, step by step.
Warning: There's a bit of ableist language tossed around in the last paragraph. Skip it, there's nothing worth reading there anyway.
You use the same kinds of tools you would use to build a slideshow, but you couple them with links, multimedia, and scripting.
Want a visual interface for your database of client data? Great! slap together a roladex card, and drop in a search function.
Go from concept to presentation ready in an hour or two (or less, if you've done this before!)
My nephew has an ipad.
He asked his dad how to write games. His dad didn't know. His dad asked me how to write games on an iPad. I told him not to bother.
My nephew asked me how to learn to write games.
I gave him a raspberry pi and a copy of pico 8.
Now he writes computer games.
He couldn't do that on his iPad.
In the first episode of computer chronicles (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wpXnqBfgvPM) the mainframe guy is real adamant about how mainframes are good and micros are bad.
The host, a microcomputer legend, disagrees pretty strongly.
Later, when they talk about the future of networking, the mainframe guy talks about it as a return to mainframes. The micro guy talks about BBSs, peer to peer networks.
The mainframe guys are winning.
@ajroach42 I want to respond, elaborate, & discuss at length here. I spent about 10 months some years ago immersed in the computing literature around the history of debuggers, during which I went from EDSAC to Visual Studio, but also all the other half-dead ends ends of computing history such as, e.g., Lisp machines.
Naturally, I came out of it a Common Lisper, and also naturally, with Opinions about modern computing.
Up for the discussion? It could get wordy and over a few days. :)
First, I want to say this: older computer systems - considered as systems - were generally more capable.
But to be clear, they were limited in use for those who didn't take an interest in learning them. I'm talking about things that weren't Windows 3.1+.
@ajroach42 @ciaby This was the Great Debate that was largely won by Microsoft. "Everyone can 'use' a computer.". That is to say, everyone can operate the appliance with preinstalled software. *everyone*. Apple pioneered the notion, but it turns out to be the preferred mode for businesses, who really rather don't like having specialized experts.
When you have sysadmins, there are no driver problems. There are no printer problems. There are no problems, as a matter of fact: it's all been taken care of by the admins.
This is exactly how executives like it.
Apple does the same, with their iPhone.
Apple is the sysadmin, metaphorically.
I am employed as a support engineer and a sysadmin, and I still run in to driver issues, printer issues, etc.
I take care of them, eventually, when I can.
But, even after doing this for 10 years, I still encounter problems that I can't solve (because there isn't a solution.)
but the metaphor of Apple as sysadmin, I'll accept. I disagree with someone else admining my phone, but that's another issue.
Hi, I'm probably near the age of @pnathan, and while I'm not a lisper anymore (ages went from my emacs fluency) I agree with all he said.
To give some context, I'm a polyglot programmer currently working on a brand new operating system http://jehanne.io
Now, the assumption that you seem to share is that people cannot learn how to program. I used to think this too.
Now however I realized that it's like we were scribas of Ancient Egypt arguing that people cannot write.
Programming is a specialty, and some people have other specialties. Expecting them to also become expert programmers because our current expert programmers can't be arsed to make extensible and understandable tools is unreasonable.
This is the assumption I challenge.
For sure programing is a speciality right now.
But it's a speciality just like reading, writing and counting.
Not everybody can be a novelist, nor a professional mathematician.
But people should be able to program, just like they are able to read, write, compute a volume, reason about an average speed, a length...
Programming is harder then math because we are still using primitive tools.
It's sad that we are happy with them.
We need a lot of #research.
We should #hack more.
And we need better #math too.
It will take some centuries.
Because, to me, the tool we need are as different from today mainstream tech as our writing system is from Egyptian #hieroglyphs.
Most programmers are not well versed about #history, and it's a pity. There's a lot to learn for us, from history.
Technology is probably the most powerful and effective way to change the world. Most changes in human organizations have been allowed by technological innovations: from fire to boats, from bronze to iron, through argricolture, writing, counting, roads, from sword to guns...
Technology can ....
Technology can change the world for the better or for the worse.
It can disrupt "the current economic system".
So, I don't think that the "current economic system" should be a problem for hackers.
We CAN throw away the web.
I really think it (I work with browser all the day, I know the stack pretty well...).
From scratch, with the lessons learned, it will take a fraction of what it took.
Interesting point. You're right.
We cannot actually trust the hardware, either.
But... I'm a software guy.
I'm more concerned about the way we connect and use the hardware than the hardware itself.
Indeed, everything I've had to learn about hardware while developing my x86_64 OS has been a pain.
We need more research on the open hardware too.
There are only 2 things that I'd like to preserve keep: little endiannes and 64bit longs.
we have these *inter-twingled* issues: the hardware is manky, the software is manky, and the incentives to improve are perverse.
My reckoning is that there is a space today for a sort of New System, a Unicorn OS, where the whole thing is largely rebuilt. Does the web have to exist? does tcp/ip? are there better systems?
here we see we make choices and one prioritizes those who take the time to learn the system and one ...doesn't
What is Unicorn OS?
Oh... you cited Oberon some toot ago.
I like it a lot (but I have to admit that I've never tried it on real hardware).
I love that Wirth still work on Oberon-07 language, and that he keep REMOVING features.
Oberon inspired Pike for Plan 9 UI. I started from Plan 9, and frankly I'm not brave enough to throw away TCP/IP as Wirth did.
Still... the Wirth's approach (hack, hack, hack, challenge all assumptions, keep it simple!) is what we need.
I do not know actually.
I literally know nothing about #hardware.
I have a dream: one low power mail server in every house.
End to end mail encryption everywhere.
Unfortunatly no one seem interested in such a huge business opportunity.
ah jeeze man, think of the sysadmin needs.
the mail servers fail. the administration is confusing because docs aren't perfect, so it gets misconfigured. the network goes down. baby pukes on server and it fails to boot. server is overloaded by volume of spam.
then the task is outsourced to a guy interested in managing the emails....... whoop whoop we're recentralizing.
@Shamar @ciaby @ajroach42 my Inner Young Geek wants to argue that actual configurable systems are actually not used in the home outside and that mail servers cross that barrier between appliance and administrating-needing machine.
but let's not rabbit trail onto that. ;-)
more my contention and question is: should we expect a member of cyberspace to be knowledgable in minor sysadmin?
I argue yes! we expect people to be able to refill their oil in cars, right?
@pnathan ... no?
There's a whole industry out there of shops that only exist because people don't change their own oil.
@ajroach42 changing oil isn't refilling oil.
one you just stick a can of oil in, the other requires draining the system, changing the filter, etc. much more specialized tooling & environment to do it right.
We do not learn car hacking at primary school because it's a specific skills set with little effect on a person growth.
Computational thinking is a completely different things.
Even if you don't code, the ability to think clearly about a problem, decomposing it into small pieces, debugging an argument... are all skills useful beyond the computer use.
It's literally a matter of power and freedom, because who is able to do that has a strong advantage over everybody else.
in the UK they are now starting to teach this at junior school level (this is for children at biological ages 5-7, which is called Key Stage 1 here)
When I grew up in 1980s it was only taught in high school at age 14+, to those who had opted to take Computer Studies (a introductory CS course)
What if everything was a #file for true?
Or, why not just use SFTP, with a FUSE filesystem on the server?
You can use a file manager and text editor, and you can have interaction, as well as authentication through SSH.
I think it even supports FIFOs...
A social network for the 19A0s.